Long Pan (Tsinghua University), Jiahai Yang (Tsinghua University), Lin He (Tsinghua University), Zhiliang Wang (Tsinghua University), Leyao Nie (Tsinghua University), Guanglei Song (Tsinghua University), Yaozhong Liu (Tsinghua University)

Active Internet measurements face challenges when some measurements require many remote vantage points. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for measuring remote IPv6 networks via side channels in ICMP rate limiting, a required function for IPv6 nodes to limit the rate at which ICMP error messages are generated. This technique, *iVantage*, can to some extent use 1.1M remote routers distributed in 9.5k autonomous systems and 182 countries as our “vantage points”.We apply *iVantage* to two different, but both challenging measurement tasks: 1) measuring the deployment of inbound source address validation (ISAV) and 2) measuring reachability between arbitrary Internet nodes. We accomplish these two tasks from only one local vantage point without controlling the targets or relying on other services within the target networks. Our large-scale ISAV measurements cover ~50% of all IPv6 autonomous systems and find ~79% of them are vulnerable to spoofing, which is the most large-scale measurement study of IPv6 ISAV to date. Our method for reachability measurements achieves over 80% precision and recall in our evaluation. Finally, we perform an Internet-wide measurement of the ICMP rate limiting implementations, present a detailed discussion on ICMP rate limiting, particularly the potential security and privacy risks in the mechanism of ICMP rate limiting, and provide possible mitigation measures. We make our code available to the community.

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