Chang Liu (University of Science and Technology of China), Jie Zhang (Nanyang Technological University), Tianwei Zhang (Nanyang Technological University), Xi Yang (University of Science and Technology of China), Weiming Zhang (University of Science and Technology of China), NengHai Yu (University of Science and Technology of China)

Nowadays, it is common to release audio content to the public, for social sharing or commercial purposes. However, with the rise of voice cloning technology, attackers have the potential to easily impersonate a specific person by utilizing his publicly released audio without any permission. Therefore, it becomes significant to detect any potential misuse of the released audio content and protect its timbre from being impersonated.

To this end, we introduce a novel concept, "Timbre Watermarking", which embeds watermark information into the target individual's speech, eventually defeating the voice cloning attacks. However, there are two challenges: 1) robustness: the attacker can remove the watermark with common speech preprocessing before launching voice cloning attacks; 2) generalization: there are a variety of voice cloning approaches for the attacker to choose, making it hard to build a general defense against all of them.

To address these challenges, we design an end-to-end voice cloning-resistant detection framework. The core idea of our solution is to embed the watermark into the frequency domain, which is inherently robust against common data processing methods. A repeated embedding strategy is adopted to further enhance the robustness. To acquire generalization across different voice cloning attacks, we modulate their shared process and integrate it into our framework as a distortion layer. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed timbre watermarking can defend against different voice cloning attacks, exhibit strong resistance against various adaptive attacks (e.g., reconstruction-based removal attacks, watermark overwriting attacks), and achieve practicality in real-world services such as PaddleSpeech, Voice-Cloning-App, and so-vits-svc. In addition, ablation studies are also conducted to verify the effectiveness of our design. Some audio samples are available at

View More Papers

COSPAS Search and Rescue Satellite Uplink: A MAC-Based Security...

Syed Khandker (New York University Abu Dhabi), Krzysztof Jurczok (Amateur Radio Operator), Christina Pöpper (New York University Abu Dhabi)

Read More

TALISMAN: Tamper Analysis for Reference Monitors

Frank Capobianco (The Pennsylvania State University), Quan Zhou (The Pennsylvania State University), Aditya Basu (The Pennsylvania State University), Trent Jaeger (The Pennsylvania State University, University of California, Riverside), Danfeng Zhang (The Pennsylvania State University, Duke University)

Read More

IdleLeak: Exploiting Idle State Side Effects for Information Leakage

Fabian Rauscher (Graz University of Technology), Andreas Kogler (Graz University of Technology), Jonas Juffinger (Graz University of Technology), Daniel Gruss (Graz University of Technology)

Read More

TrustSketch: Trustworthy Sketch-based Telemetry on Cloud Hosts

Zhuo Cheng (Carnegie Mellon University), Maria Apostolaki (Princeton University), Zaoxing Liu (University of Maryland), Vyas Sekar (Carnegie Mellon University)

Read More